The MAFTIA project will investigate the dependability of large distributed applications thus addressing one of the four key issues of the IST Programme and in particular the main objectives of CPA2. Its major innovation is a comprehensive approach for tolerating both accidental faults and malicious attacks in such systems, including attacks by external hackers and by corrupt insiders. The objectives of the project will evolve under the guidance of an Industrial Advisory Board, representing a cross-section of the industrial organizations which can best exploit MAFTIA's ideas. Board members will provide "use cases" based on actual or planned major systems and on realistic threat scenarios; as the project progresses they will play an ever-increasing role in providing exploitation routes for the results. Deliverables will include demonstrations and prototypes of several accident- and attack-tolerant security mechanisms and services.